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What Are Trauma Disorder?
Trauma disorders are mental disorders that include the experience of a traumatic or very stressful event. Not everyone who experiences a great deal of stress or trauma will develop a mental health condition, but for those who do the cause can be traced directly to that situation as a causal factor. Trauma disorders must be treated or they can lead to serious complications ranging from problems at work to social isolation to depression and suicide.

Disorders related to trauma and stress were once classified as types of, or related to, anxiety disorders. That classification has changed, because although experiencing anxiety is common with trauma disorders, there may be other, more prominent emotional symptoms depending on the individual. Someone struggling with a trauma may experience depression, anger, aggression, or anhedonia more so than anxiety.

Symptoms and Diagnosis of Trauma Disorders
The symptoms of trauma and stress disorders that affect adults are similar. PTSD typically causes the most severe and longest-lasting symptoms, while ASD and adjustment disorders are less severe. Symptoms of PTSD can set in within a month of a traumatic event or may not appear for years later. They last longer than a month and cause significant impairment. PTSD symptoms are grouped into four clusters:

– Intrusions: recurring and distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks
– Avoidance: avoiding situations or people that trigger memories of trauma, and avoiding talking about it
– Negative thoughts or mood: negative thoughts about the world or oneself, hopelessness, lack of positive emotions, lack of interest in activities, emotional numbness, withdrawal from friends and family
– Reactions: startling or scaring easily, difficulty sleeping or concentrating, self-destructive behaviors, being on guard, angry or aggressive outbursts

To be diagnosed with acute stress disorder, the trauma-related symptoms must last between three days and one month. If they persist longer it is not considered ASD but may be diagnosed as PTSD. Another difference between ASD and PTSD is that a diagnosis of PTSD must include at least one symptom from each cluster, while ASD may cause any combination of the symptoms:
– Intrusive memories
– Nightmares
– Flashbacks
– Intense reactions and distress in response to memories of the trauma
– Lack of positive emotions
– Forgetting aspects of the trauma
– Feeling dissociated from one’s self or surroundings
– Avoiding distressing memories
– Avoiding external cues and reminders of trauma
– Difficulty concentrating
– Hypervigilance
– Startling easily
– Irritability
– Difficulty sleeping

Causes and Risk Factors
The underlying cause of trauma and stress disorders is an experience or multiple experiences that are traumatic or extremely stressful. The exact event or experience can vary widely depending on the person. Not everyone will respond to trauma or stress in these ways, but there are certain risk factors that can make one person more susceptible than another.

For instance, more severe or multiple traumas can increase the risk of developing a disorder. Having a job that increases the likelihood of trauma, such as being in the military or working as a police officer, is also considered a risk factor. Other risk factors include the presence of other mental illnesses, lack of a good support system, having a family history of trauma disorders, and struggling with drugs or alcohol.

What should I do?
Give yourself time
It takes time – weeks or months – to accept what has happened and to learn to live with it. You may need to grieve for what (or who) you have lost.

Find out what happened
It is better to face the reality of what happened rather than wondering about what might have happened.

Be involved with other survivors
If you go to funerals or memorial services, this may help you to come to terms with what has happened. It can help to spend time with others who have been through the same experience as you.

Ask for support
It can be a relief to talk about what happened. You may need to ask your friends and family for the time to do this – at first they will probably not know what to say or do.

Take some time for yourself
At times you may want to be alone or just with those close to you.

Talk it over
Bit by bit, let yourself think about the trauma and talk about it with others. Don’t worry if you cry when you talk, it’s natural and usually helpful. Take things at a pace that you feel comfortable with.

Get into a routine
Even if you don’t feel much like eating, try to have regular meals and to eat a balanced diet. Taking some exercise can help – but start gently.

Do some ‘normal’ things with other people
Sometimes you will want to be with other people, but not to talk about what has happened. This can also be part of the healing process.

Take care
After a trauma, people are more likely to have accidents. Be careful around the home and when you are driving

What should I not do?
Don’t bottle up your feelings
Strong feelings are natural. Don’t feel embarrassed about them. Bottling them up can make you feel worse and can damage your health. Let yourself talk about what has happened and how you feel, and don’t worry if you cry.

Don’t take on too much
Being active can take your mind off what has happened, but you need time to think to go over what happened so you can come to terms with it. Take some time to get back to your old routine.

Don’t drink or use drugs
Alcohol or drugs can blot out painful memories for a while, but they will stop you from coming to terms with what has happened. They can also cause depression and other health problems.

Don’t make any major life changes
Try to put off any big decisions. Your judgement may not be at its best and you may make choices you later regret. Take advice from people you trust.

    If you would like to be consulted by psychologist, contact the psychologist immediately for helps

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